Factbox: rifts that divide NATO allies Turkey and United States

Joe Biden holds his first meeting as US president with Tayyip Erdogan on Monday, ending a five-month wait for the Turkish leader which underlines the cooler relations between Ankara and Washington since Biden took office in January.

The two leaders must navigate an array of disputes, most of which pre-date Biden's taking office in January and which have strained relations between the two allies for years.

For all latest news, follow The Daily Star's Google News channel.

Turkey, a NATO member, has angered the United States by buying Russian S-400 ground-to-air defence missiles.

Washington imposed sanctions on Turkey's defence industry and cancelled the sale to Ankara of 100 F-35 stealth fighter jets, the most advanced US warplane. It is also ending the role of Turkish firms in making F-35 parts, although some have continued in the absence of alternative producers.


Turkey is furious about US support in Syria for the Kurdish YPG militia, which Ankara sees as a terrorist group.

Turkish forces have carried out three incursions into northern Syria since 2016 to push the YPG back from the border.


Biden's only phone call with Erdogan since entering the White House came in April, when he gave notice that he planned to describe the World War One massacres of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire, forerunner of modern Turkey, as a genocide.

Erdogan said the designation was baseless, unjust and harmful to ties, and called on Biden to reverse it.


Turkey demands that the United States extradite Islamic cleric Fethullah Gulen, who Ankara has said orchestrated an attempted 2016 military coup against Erdogan.

US officials have said courts would require sufficient evidence to extradite the elderly Gulen, who has denied any involvement in the failed coup.

Turkey's Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu has accused the United States of being behind the coup attempt, a charge Washington says is wholly false.


After the failed coup Turkish authorities launched a crackdown which continues nearly five years later. More than 91,000 people have been jailed and over 150,000 people have been sacked or suspended from their jobs over alleged links to Gulen.

In February a bipartisan majority of the US Senate urged Biden's administration push Turkey to do more to protect human rights, accusing Erdogan of marginalizing domestic opposition, silencing critical media, jailing journalists and purging independent judges.


An Istanbul court sentenced a Turkish employee at the US consulate to five years in jail last year for aiding Gulen's network. Nazmi Mete Canturk, a security officer at the Istanbul consulate, denied the charges and is free pending appeal.

Canturk is the third US consulate worker to be convicted. Hamza Ulucay served two years in jail on terrorism charges. Metin Topuz, a translator for the US Drug Enforcement Administration at the consulate in Istanbul, was sentenced last year to nearly nine years in jail for aiding Gulen's network.


Erdogan accused Biden last month of "writing history with bloody hands" after he approved weapons sales to Israel during its conflict with the militant Hamas group which runs Gaza.


In 2018 a US court sentenced Mehmet Hakan Atilla, a Turkish citizen and banker at Turkey's state-controlled Halkbank, to 32 months in prison after he was convicted of taking part in a scheme to help Iran evade US sanctions.

The bank has been indicted on the same charges, and pleaded not guilty to bank fraud, money laundering and conspiracy charges. The case is still pending. Atilla was released in 2019.


During his election campaign, Biden criticised Erdogan and said the United States should support his political opponents.

Erdogan, who has ruled Turkey for nearly two decades, said in early June that relations with the Biden White House were more tense than they had been with three previous presidents.

"In our meeting with him, we will of course ask him why US-Turkey relations are at a tense stage," Erdogan said.

Football news:

The more the fly spins in the web, the more entangled it becomes. Here is how Belarusian officials and coaches persuaded the athlete to go home
Ronaldinho on Messi's victory at the Copa America: This is the only thing that he lacked. I am very happy for him
Mikel Arteta: Jaka stays. He is a key Arsenal player
Parti injured his ankle in a friendly game with Chelsea. Arsenal midfielder will be examined tomorrow
Umtiti agrees to leave Barca, but only to a club from the Champions League or claiming the title
Sassuolo is ready to give Locatelli to Juve on loan for 5 million euros with an obligation to buy out at least 30 million
Sofia Pozdnyakova: It's more fun with the audience, the excitement wakes up. But we do not have such a popular sport as football or figure skating. We are used to it