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Supreme Court fake "originalism"

There is only one problem. Both decisions make history wrong.

There are good reasons to oppose originalism as a philosophy of law. 21st century societies need to actually interpret the Constitution by the standards of 1787. This was before the introduction of semi-automatic weapons, steam engines, penicillins, cars, trains, lamps and indoor plumbing. But in a sense, it's a pointless argument at this point. We all live in the world of originalists, along with the originalists who hold 6 of the 9 seats of the Supreme Court.

The problem withfunctionalabout originalism is that history needs to be very well understood. J. D. Newly created from the program and owned.

It is difficult to become an expert in American politics, law, and social history. However, it is very easy to choose a historical example that seeks rationale and achieves its purpose. This is exactly what the majority of the Supreme Court did twice this week.

In recent gun control decisions, as well as recent abortion decisions, a majority of the Supreme Court showed how intellectually vulnerable the originalist project really is.

"A well-regulated militia is necessary for the security of a free state and violates the right of people to hold and bear weapons. Don't do it. ”

Many Americans find the constitutional amendment Article 2 inadequate and confusing. Historians do not. In the 18th century, when Congress passed and the state ratified the amendment, political consensus argued that rights and obligations were both sides of the same coin. "There are two types of rights for those who are ordered to be complied with by the laws of local governments," wrote Sir William Blackstone, the mastermind behind Anglo-American law. "First, it's usually called a citizen's duty, such as payments from all citizens, and second, it's a more general acceptance of rights, such as belonging to him ... each other, rights and each other's obligations."

Because of the ownership of the gun, armed rights were closely related to the citizen'sdutyto serve militia and protect the community from internal and external enemies. ..

The concept of a "well-regulated" community-a community where order is predominant and male citizens are obliged to protect-was not a rhetorical habit peculiar to Article 2 of the Constitutional Amendment. .. It was a popular term. The founding generation shared a broad belief that there was a tension between "freedom of nature and the principle of equal security established in a well-regulated society." In this context, most Americans in the 1790s would have noticed that Article 2 of the Constitutional Amendment was clear. The federal government was unable to prevent civilians from dispatching their obligations to protect their communities, namely by maintaining armed militias.

The Pennsylvania Constitution, adopted in 1776 and often inconsistently quoted by gun control opponents, states that "the people have the right to arm themselves to protect themselves. "In particular, this provision did not appear alongside the section that establishes the freedom of speech and the individual's right to religion. Albert Gallatin, who later served as Pennsylvania Parliamentarian and US Treasury Secretary, said the difference was "declaration of the rights of the general public or considered an individual." And in this regard, the Pennsylvania Constitution was clear. "This federal liberty and his sons must be trained and armed for their defense under the regulations, restrictions and exceptions required by law of the General Assembly."

Massachusetts The state's influential controversial pseudonym, Scribble Scrabble (commonly written under a pseudonym by a prominent man), said this when he claimed that the state's "rights code guarantees people to use it." Reflected general logic. Of weapons in common defense. With regard to individual armed rights, it exists, and Scrabble Scrabble argued that "until the legislature deems it worthy of a ban," "it is a natural right and will not be abandoned by the Constitution." .. That is, under the terms of the new federal constitution, theright to possess weapons that participated in the service of the militiawas constitutionally guaranteed. The right to exercise armed rights from an individual standpoint was a natural and common law right that the legislaturecould ban.

In the case of Article 2 of the Constitutional Amendment, Congress feared the rise of a large standing army that could counteract American freedom, as the British did in the 1760s. I tried to alleviate one's concerns. 1770s. The amendment stipulates that Congress can never deprive people of the right to own firearms in the dispatch of obligations to carry out militia services. The right to own a gun for personal self-defense was different — as Scribble Scrabble pointed out is a common law issue that could be expanded, modified, or robbed by law.

The differences between the collective rights and obligations of armed rights and the individual rights to ownership of guns were widely understood. In Virginia, Thomas Jefferson attempted to include the rights of certain individuals with right to arm in the State Constitution to complement existing provisions to protect the militia. His efforts have failed. Similar efforts have failed in other states.

Some may argue that the early state constitution was different from the federal constitution approved by the treaty in 1787. However, these early state documents are deeply involved in the federal efforts in Philadelphia. Their adoption debate helps to understand how Americans in the late 18th century thought about rights.

But to understand what the founding generation thought about firearms regulation, you can see not only what they said, but what they did. .. James Madison, author of the Bill of Rights, introduced state law twice in Virginia, imposing penalties on individuals who "have a gun from his closed ground unless they are in military service." did.

You read that right. The author of Article 2 of the Constitutional Amendment drafted a state-wide law that was the de facto pioneer of New York state law that the Supreme Court had just withdrawn. A bill aimed at regulating deer hunting was not passed. However, it has made it clear that Madison sees ownership of personal guns as well, within the limits of state regulatory privileges.

In early republics, local and state authorities often confiscated guns from people who were considered a threat to public security, or simply dishonest. Pennsylvania has denied individuals who "refuse or neglect" to swear or affirm their allegiance to the Commonwealth and the right to store firearms "in their own homes or elsewhere." Massachusetts imposes the same restrictions on "those who are notorious for being dissatisfied with the American cause, or who refuse to participate in the defense of the American colonial army." In other words, there is no loyalty or militia service. There are no militia services or guns.

Early republican states generally regulated the carrying of hidden guns. In Ohio, "Anyone carrying one or more weapons hidden above or around a person, such as a pistol, bowie knife, dark, or other dangerous weapon, is considered guilty."

They also generally regulated explosives, limiting the amount of ammunition an individual could hold and store at one time. why. Because it was dangerous. The entire town could catch fire and burn to the ground. Therefore, the logic of originalism suggests that the state has the right to regulate the size of magazines.

The state's rights to limit ownership of individual guns by originalism's own sparse standards are as American as apple pie. However, Article 14 of the Constitutional Amendment has its own challenges.

The Bill of Rights initially prohibited what Congress could do. Meanwhile, the state was free to limit freedom of speech, assembly, religion, and ownership of firearms, that is, due process rights and jury trials. And they did so often.

The Fourteenth Amendment changed this equation. Ratified in 1868, "No country enacts or enforces a law that invalidates the privileges or immunity of US citizens, and any country deprives a person of life, freedom, or property without proper legal procedures. Nor can we deny the protection of equality of law against anyone in its jurisdiction. "

The Supreme Court uses the 14th Amendment to" incorporate the Privileges Code. " It will take decades to extend that clause to the state. But it was an unmistakable orbit.

The Republican Parliament, which created and passed the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, did so in response to a very special set of situations. In the aftermath of the Civil War, the former South Army state passed a wave of "black codes" seeking to restore all slavery except its name. The state-level Black Code has driven black children to work, limiting the rights of former slaves to rallying and speech, and in particular banning possession of firearms. The proposed amendment framer was specifically intended to extend the protection provided by the Bill of Rights to the state. These protections included the right to arm, as conservative originalists, including Judge Thomas, consistently claimed.

Again, choosing a historical example is one thing. Knowing your history is different.

The lead author of the amendment, Jonathan Bingham, was very clear. The new provision was intended to require equal treatment under the law. The state could not givesomepeople the right to free speech and meetings (or ownership of guns), strictly on the basis of race, but to others. Did not give. It was not the idea that citizens had the right to own individual guns. It was that the state could not discriminate on the basis of race.

In addition, the 1868 Republican Party was formed by the Reconstruction State Government, where paramilitaries allied with the Democratic Party protected the same state government from violent overthrow by Clansman and others. Invested deeply in maintaining the "militia". During the reconstruction, as in 1787, the constitutional framer saw the rights of guns through the prism of collective and communal duty.

Ulysses S when South Carolina's Clansman attempts to disarm the Black Militia, whose guns were provided by the Republican-led state government. The Grant administration responded with great concern.In particular, in their enforcement efforts, the Attorney General of South Carolina and US lawyers continued to discuss the rights and obligations of citizens, or black citizens, who carry out militia services and thereby protect local communities and the state. rice field. The immediate problem they argued was "a systematic attempt to rob people of their weapons, retain and prevent the burden of weapons provided by the state government. It was secured by the US Constitution and was the first. It is not a plot to defeat the rights of citizens, assured by the amendment of Article 14. "

This allows citizens to own guns. I'm not sayingthat it should or shouldn't be allowed. That's another question.

However, due to its own unstable logic, there is no convincing and original debate about the constitutional rights ofindividuals to ownguns. The Bill of Rights Flamer firmly argued that the right to own a gun exists only in line with the obligation to carry out the service of the militia and maintain well-regulated peace.

That does not mean that the statecannot allowcitizens to own guns and openly hide and carry them. If Texas wants to follow that route, the legislature can (and has passed) positive law to that effect. However, there is no historical basis for constitutional standards that deny the ability of New Jersey or New Jersey to limit ownership of individual guns.

The court also relied heavily on history to uphold the decision to overturn the constitutional right of women to have an abortion, "Overwhelming agreement on state law in force in 1868.". Article 14 of the Constitutional Amendment was approved and abortion was criminalized. This is half too smart. The original standards of the majority should lead to the general laws and traditions that were in force when the Constitution was adopted. When Congress drafted the Bill of Rights in the late 18th century, common law decided that abortion was not a crime until the "hurry" moment when a woman first felt the movement or kick of the fetus. Only she could prove the facts. In English and colonial courts, she was harmless if a woman testified that her unborn baby was not fast. In the 19th century, advertisements for abortion drugs were prominently published in newspapers and magazines. The state began outlawing abortion only in the mid to late 19th century, primarily in response to efforts by (male) doctors to outlaw midwives and other associate specialists. According to the originalist logic, these laws are unconstitutional and should not be the basis for later interpretation. What I mean is that abortion was a common law right in 1787, so it is not constitutionally protected. Rather, the majority of courts have carefully selected the history of abortion and are aware of historical examples that support the goals they want to achieve.

Curiously, during the 24 hours, the majority of the courts moved the goal post. In the 1790s for guns and in the 1850s for abortions, it was decided which historical standards should inform the boundaries of constitutional exegesis.

The broader problem is that originalism essentially requires judges and their legal counsel to obtain a PhD. In American (and perhaps Early Modern English) history. If legal scholars are not familiar with history, legal theories built on historical foundations will not work.

Otherwise, originalism would be a non-serious game of the cherry-picking example — a political outcome in search of supportive debate.