The new report uses data from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development study, which began in 2009 with researchers actively following participants as they grow and develop, from mid-pregnancy into childhood and adolescence.
When infants were 3 or 4 months old, their parents provided a poop sample for each infant and answered questions about their home, explained Kozyrskyj. Samples from 757 infants were profiled and analyzed along with BMI data at older ages and parental use of disinfectant products.
One of the study's findings is that roughly 80% of Canadian households use disinfectant products, most often multi-surface cleaners, at least once weekly, said Kozyrskyj.
While the researchers found an increase in Lachnospiraceae bacteria with more frequent cleaning with disinfectants, they did not see the same association with washing detergents without the bacteria-killing ingredients found in disinfectants or eco-friendly cleaners.
"These results suggest that gut microbiota were the culprit in the association between disinfectant use and the overweight," said Kozyrskyj.
Gut microbiota refers to the community of bacteria that live harmoniously together in our digestive tract, explained Kozyrskyj. This community develops during infancy when we gain a larger number of bacterial species, with each species decreasing or increasing in number over time.
"We each possess a unique gut microbiota but there are common patterns, there are common microbes that are expected to be found in childhood and in adulthood," said Kozyrskyj. "I would say around 3 years of age we have a bacterial composition that we can call our own. And it stays with us for the remainder of our life."
Spotting risk factors for obesity
Though the study results highlight the connection between disinfectants and the gut microbiota, Kozyrskyj noted that "it still is a big leap to use the word causation."
That said, some of the evidence clearly points to a direct cause-effect relationship between disinfectants and higher levels of the common gut bacteria, she said. For example, animal studies have found similar changes in the gut bacteria of piglets when exposed to disinfectants, she said.
And "higher frequency of use of disinfectant was associated with higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae," said Kozyrskyj. Still, she warned that more research is needed to confirm these results and establish a causal relationship.
"The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to rise globally," wrote Differding and Mueller, adding that it is "more important than ever" to identify obesity risk factors and ways to prevent high weight gains in children.
Kozyrskyj said one finding in the new study surprised the research team. Babies living in households that used eco-friendly cleaners had different microbiota -- much lower levels of Enterobacteriaceae -- and were less likely to be overweight as toddlers. Yet, an analysis of the data did not show that this altered bacterial community was linked to the reduced obesity risk in the children.
"The eco-friendly product-using mothers may be more healthy," she said, adding that the mother's overall healthier lifestyle and eating habits may benefit both the gut bacteria and the weight of their children.
Because the results have yet to be confirmed, Kozyrskyj is not yet ready to recommend consumers buy eco-friendly products. However, she said the study did open her mind to using green products, including DIY vinegar cleaning solutions, in her own home.